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The Now, The New & The Next in Careers

Labor Market Trends Articles

Stay ahead of the curve with insights from our CTL Associates.

  • 15 Dec 2015 1:52 PM | Anonymous

    By Judit Price, MS, CCM, CPRW, IJCTC, CDFI
    Career Campaign

    A large part of my job requires that I keep as current as possible with industry experts. While trend analysis can be questionable when applied to a single individual, I have found that over time many of these trend forecasts do permeate the world-of-work and eventually become standard practice. Examples of predictions from past reports that have been shown to be of value include new hiring patterns, job security (or insecurity), resume changes and, of course, the advent of social media as tools for both job search and career building.

    Nevertheless, some employment experts are starting to sense a turnaround for the general working population. Some companies, Google for example, may be outliers with their progressive employment policies. But, perhaps not. For example, a recent article in the Boston Globe pointed out that the United States is the only major industry country that does not have a paid leave policy. Yet, the article also pointed out firms that offered paid leave programs have demonstrated lower turnover, higher productivity and especially important, a higher retention of talented women employees.

    In addition, the shift to off-shoring has certainly abated, if not reversed, and the competition for qualified workers has intensified with some upward pressure on compensation. Employers are becoming increasingly aggressive in their efforts to recruit people who are qualified to do their work. A limited supply of workers with the right education, training, and experience is causing employers with inadequate staffing to take another look at why they are not meeting customer expectations and/or not maintaining market position.

    As a result, there may be a gradual increase in attention to employee retention. The rising heat in the employment market is already motivating an increasing number of employees to change jobs, according to government statistics, often responding to attractive incentives. Employers with higher attrition rates may be having increasing difficulty hiring quality replacements. Retention strategies seem to be gaining attention.

    This may also be good news for older workers. In need of a stable workforce comprised of people with wisdom, experience, and reliability, employers will emphasize retention and hiring of older workers. Seniors seeking income-full or supplemental, social relationships, and a desire to stay active and productive may now have more options to continue working.

    It may also have implications for senior lifestyles with changes in retirement plans to lifetime lifestyle funding. With the evaporation of traditional retirement, long-term wealth accumulation plans will modify pay-out options to offer greater flexibility. As people age, they may draw from savings to finance sabbaticals, pay for world travel, fund education, or subsidize other non-work activities.

    Competition, the need for a well trained work force, including the need to continually upgrade skills, will result in larger investments in corporate training. More companies will grow their education and development programs, utilizing internal resources, community colleges and universities, and outside contractors. Emphasis will be placed on the development of future leaders, providing fast-tracking in those organizations that already lack competent leadership.

    Workers desiring more control over their time, seeking better life-work balance, will persuade employers to facilitate telecommuting options. Utilizing available and emerging technology, remote employees will be even more highly connected to co-workers, customers, and company leaders. Long distance and international telecommuting will continue to increase as corporations grow globally.

    Employers competing for qualified workers are now beginning to support a wide range of options of work arrangements including shorter work-weeks, flexible hours, and job-role modification. Increasing emphasis on results, with managers and subordinates becoming more equal-like partners-in accomplishing work will continue, as even in organizations with deep hierarchies, work environments feel more level.

    Managers have become increasingly frustrated with the low level of preparation of the workforce, particularly entry level applicants. Their complaints are being heard by senior corporate executives who are looking for greater performance from public schools and technical, community, and four-year colleges. Most community leaders are trying to focus on resources to improve local education to tomorrow’s workforce.

    In general, these anecdotal examples are good news for those that see themselves as career builders, and understand the requirements for success in the future world-of-work. The big question is whether we are at the beginning of a major reversal of the employment hiring, retention and compensation policies of the past.

    Clearly, a strong and growing economy, government policies, the proliferation of public private/private partnerships and the view by employers that employees are important stakeholders, will determine where we go from here.

  • 24 Apr 2013 4:37 PM | Anonymous

    By Joan Runnheim Olson

    As a pioneer for women in nontraditional careers, I asked Marquita M. Qualls to share her thoughts on STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) careers. This is part one in a two part series on this topic.

    Why do you think STEM is important?

    STEM - Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics. Whether we realize it or not, we all do some aspect of STEM in our daily activities. STEM is just as much about discovery (researching a cure for cancer) as it is application (using our smartphones and tablets). As we are becoming more technologically advanced, it is important that we have people trained in STEM fields to be competitive on a global economy.   One misconception that I notice when we say we need more people trained in STEM is that it means that we need more lab scientists. However, STEM is more than laboratory science. A STEM job or career spans a broad spectrum including the policy makers in Congress, the journalist who report scientific discoveries, and the teachers who infuse the excitement of STEM in the minds of young learners.

    In your opinion, why do you think there are so few women in STEM?

    When we pose the question of why so few women, I think we need to make sure we are clear as to what field we are referring. There are several disciplines that comprise the STEM field, so it's a bit tricky to aggregate all of them together and conclude that there are few women in STEM. Granted, if we are talking about the physical and lab based research STEM practitioners, there is a noticeable gap between men and women.

    Many women choose to pursue a family, and unfortunately the demands of these careers often do not support a healthy work/life balance. Things have improved in recent years in terms of employers providing policies and resources to support the needs of STEM women, but there is still much more work to be done. I've not seen any data or reports with an analysis of the demographics when all of the STEM and STEM related careers are taken into account. That's not to say that it hasn't been done... I've just not seen it. My guess, though, is that the gap may not be as wide as we thought when we consider STEM traditional and non-traditional roles.

    Note: In my next blog post, Marquita will continue the conversation on STEM and share the role educators and counselors play in a student's career decision-making and more.

  • 28 Nov 2011 6:23 PM | Anonymous

    By Joan Runnheim Olson

    I have talked about it before - socialization plays a big role in gender stereotyping and ultimately career decision-making. From an early age, girls are dressed in pink, boys in blue. Girls are given dolls to play with and boys, trucks. Around the home, girls are typically given the tasks of washing the dishes and cleaning the house, while boys mow the lawn and change oil in the car.

    Traditional gender roles often carry over into school where females are encouraged to take classes that prepare them for female-dominated careers and males for male-dominated careers. In the United States, there are many initiatives to encourage females and males to consider non-traditional careers. Many secondary and post-secondary schools receive Perkins grant funding to increase enrollment in classes/programs that prepare students for these male or female-dominated careers. 

    I present workshops across the country providing strategies on how to increase enrollment and retention in these classes and programs.

    So, what's happening elsewhere? The already progressive Sweden has taken a radical step and opened a tax-payer funded preschool for kids aged 1 to 6. The Egalia preschool was designed to engineer equality between the sexes from childhood on. Opened in 2010 in Stockholm, the core mission in the national curriculum is breaking down gender roles.  

    Great care is taken to ensure children don’t fall into gender stereotypes. The staff addresses the kids as friends rather than girls and boys. Fostering an environment tolerant of gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender people, the classic fairy tale books are non-existent at the preschool. Toys that are traditionally played with by girls or boys are placed next to each other.

    Egalia isn’t without its opponents. Some consider the school highly controversial and propose that some of their tactics are tantamount to mind control. What are your thoughts on Egalia?

  • 23 Sep 2011 6:22 PM | Anonymous

    By Sharon Wiatt Jones

    Netpreneur Kevin Sproles created the online shopping cart in 1999 at the age of 16. He is founder and CEO of Volusion, an eCommerce company that helps retailers make more than $2 billion a year. Other young innovators are well known. Mark Zuckerberg began Facebook in his Harvard dorm room, and Jack Dorsey was a New York University dropout who developed the prototype for Twitter. Mark Zuckerberg wore flip-flops and Jack Dorsey a nose ring when they first became prominent entrepreneurs.

    Not surprisingly, social media firms have distinctive corporate cultures. Facebook offers “baby cash” of $4,000 to new parents, 21 days of paid vacation and unlimited sick days. Twitter urges applicants to “JoinOurFlock,” and offers yoga and Pilate’s classes on-site.

    TYPES OF JOBS. Digital eco-system jobs tend to be interdisciplinary. New qualifications are expected according to evolving technology and marketing techniques. Collaboration is done by teams and may include writers, developers, programmers, designers, project managers, user-interface specialists, linguists, marketers, data analysts, and strategists.

    CONTENT. The first blog was created in 1994 by Swarthmore student Justin Hall. Bill Gates wrote in 1996 that “Content is king.” By 2004, a dictionary labeled “blog” as the Word of the Year. A blogger, content specialist, and online communications specialist write original, engaging content targeted to a specific audience. In addition to writing for websites or catalogs according to a style guide, a content architect organizes material (text, pictures, videos, audios, buttons, icons, logos) through information mapping. Sometimes described as a digital librarian, the content curator identifies Twitter feeds, Facebook users, and relevant blogs.

    Requirements for an Ideas United intern include: “organizational and multi-tasking superpowers…Your voice is authentic and real, even in 140 characters or less…You can hop online at a moment’s notice and deal with any situation. Twitter and Facebook specialists are being recruited by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) to monitor social networking websites for intelligence about potential threats. The search engine optimization (SEO) copywriter conducts keyword research to write consumer-oriented articles and press releases ranking high in search engine results. Compelling content is an important strategy to web link campaigns. A digital marketing editor develops creative emails, banner ads, and direct marketing content. Fact-checking and copy editing are also part of the job.

    MARKETING. Visa’s chief marketing executive Antonio Lucio was quoted in BtoB, an online magazine for marketing strategists, on April 27, 2011, saying “I have never seen such a transformative change as the one that we are living through today.” The company’s budget for digital media has increased from about 11% to 36% in two and a half years. Social media marketing job titles include sentiment analysis specialist, market insights analyst, intelligence analyst, and email marketing analyst. A junior social networks marketer uses techniques such as recruiting online neighborhood ambassadors, engaging influential bloggers, and developing campaigns with word-of-mouth and viral marketing.

    One employer requires that this entry-level hire “master online social networking, the blogosphere, search tools and general Web 2.0.” A community manager may use brand advocates (Microsoft MVPs, Intel Insiders, Walmart Moms), to evangelize a brand or product. These are highly-satisfied customers who voluntarily share positive experiences in blogs, tweets, LinkedIn group discussions, and video testimonials. ListenLogic, a social media market research and intelligence company, identifies issues, threats, and opportunities for its clients. Its social intelligence team monitors millions of online texts for consumer insights as potential product innovation ideas.

  • 19 Jul 2011 4:03 PM | Anonymous

    By Sharon Wiatt Jones

    UCLA star professor Todd Samuel Presner has been called a “time traveler” for using emerging technology and history to portray the growth of cities. In 2008 he led a Center for Digital Humanities team to create “Hypermedia Berlin,” an interactive Web-based visualization of the city from the 13th century to present. The result is a collection of maps, one on top of another, in layers similar to an archeological dig. Presner refers to himself simply as a “techie-humanist,” but his work has spawned a new field called “digital humanities.” Scholars in this new occupation hold positions such as professor of humanities computing, digital archeologist, humanities specialist, digital humanities developer, and librarian for digital research and scholarship.

    Digital humanities positions began to appear in the Chronicle of Higher Education in 2008.  One faculty member wrote an online forum post about working with colleagues in this new field.  “I think it’s safe to say that the vast majority of us in the department have absolutely no idea what they do.  However, it seems to be very sexy and attracts a lot of grant funding. I can’t help wondering if it’s just a fad and will die out soon.” 

    Duke University hosts several humanities labs at the John Hope Franklin Humanities Institute.  A team of faculty members leads each lab as a sort of think tank for interdisciplinary research and teaching. For example, BorderWork(s) provided intensive collaboration on topics such as citizenship, refugees, human rights, cartography, and geopolitical space. The purpose of these one to three year endeavors is to apply theory and practice to important world problems.

    Although Melissa Terras from the University College London once blogged about digital humanities scholars as the “freaks and geeks of the academic world,” this emerging field offers growing opportunities.

  • 19 Jul 2011 3:48 PM | Anonymous

    By Joan Runnheim Olson

    While a wide range of career options are open to qualified women, many remain male-dominated, aka, non-traditional for women. Below are 10 career fields where women can find job opportunities and serve as pioneers for other women.  

    Agriculture: Farming, ranching, and other forms of agriculture have traditionally been male occupations. Women own only 8.6% of farms in the United States. Traditional agriculture careers, including those that are more high-tech, are in great need of female employees. This field is a smart choice for women interested in a science field with immediately practical applications.

    Forestry: Images of lumberjacks, mountain men, and park rangers are what probably come to mind when thinking of forestry. Today, only 10% of the total 18,000 professional forester members of the Society of American Foresters are women. Only 26% of the U.S. Forest Service staff members are women, and less than 7% of the senior executive officers are women. The profession could use women who are passionate about protecting and preserving America's wild spaces.

    Electrician: Fewer than 2% of licensed electricians are women. Gender prejudice and lack of recruitment of women to the field may be two of the reasons attributing to the low percentage of women employed in the field. The field often pays well and can be a good option for women who would prefer to work with their hands.

    Engineering: A little over 12% of the total engineering workforce is comprised of women. In electrical engineering, only 8% of the workforce is made up of women. Many schools have low female enrollment in engineering programs, which can contribute to the low number of women in the field. 

    Mathematics: Stereotypes still persist that women aren't good at math, and it appears that women seem to believe that stereotype. Women are underrepresented in math-related fields, especially in academic positions at top universities. 

    Aviation: Only 6% of the over 600,000 pilots in the United States are women and only 3.85% of non-pilot aviation jobs are held by women. Women are in high demand from many airlines and private companies who want to diversify their staff. 

    Fire and emergency services: Many women face a battle being accepted as firefighters and emergency workers. This is due to the belief by some that women shouldn't be working in the field because they can't match the upper body strength of men. This can lead to women not even considering a career as a firefighter or rescue worker. As of 2008, women make up only 3.7% of the first responder workforce. Over 50% of metro fire departments don't even have one female on staff.

    Law enforcement: This field remains male-dominated with only 12% of females in law enforcement jobs nationwide and only 1% of female law enforcement officers rising to the level of lieutenant or higher. Law enforcement can be a good career choice for women with a passion for protecting. 

    Architecture: Women still make up only 13.3% of professional architects. It's a tough field to navigate, with male chauvinism still being a major factor in the architectural culture. Now is a good time for a female pioneer to break the glass ceiling.

    Information Technology: While 42% of IT professionals were female in 1996, by 2004 that number dropped to 32%. Females pursuing a computer science degree dropped from 37% of grads in 1985 to just 28% today. Companies are doing what they can to draw women back into the profession.

    Chemistry: Today women hold only 12% of tenure and tenure-track professorships in chemistry even though over 40% of the PhDs awarded in the field were to females. 

    Source: Bachelor Degrees Online (http://www.bachelorsdegreeonline.com/blog/2011/14-fields-in-desperate-need-of-females)

  • 10 May 2011 5:43 PM | Anonymous

    By Barbara Safani

    What will jobs and employment look like in 2020, 2030 and beyond? What are the mega-trends shaping tomorrow’s careers and what new opportunities can we and our children look forward to? Although vitally important to position yourself for a great job today, it’s just as important to consider tomorrow and all that it will have to offer. Here’s just a sampling from Career Thought Leader Wendy Enelow.

    Jobs in Space Technology: Exobotanists, Exozoologists: will study interplanetary plants and animals. Space Sweepers: Junk Recyclers will control space debris that poses health, environmental and safety concerns.

    Jobs in Emerging Technologies: Avatar Relationship Managers, Digital Identity Planners, Global System Architects, Online Community Organizers, Roboticians, Smart Car Designers, Smart Road Engineers, Terabyters, and Wiki-Writers are just a few of the very many new positions in technology-related fields.

    Jobs in Health Care & Human Services: Bio-Botic Physicians, Brain Signal Decoders (Mind Readers), Environmental Health Nurses, Extinction Revivalists, and Sensuality Simulators are just a few of the most interesting new positions on the immediate horizon. Green Careers Coach, Post-Normal Jobs Counselors & Transhumanist Consultants are just a few of the new jobs that are already starting to emerge in the “jobs/careers” industry.

    Jobs in the Sciences: Digital Archaeologists, Energy Harvesters, and Extinction Revivalists are just a few of the most interesting new opportunities.

    Jobs in Agriculture & Food Service: Clone Ranchers and Agri-Restaurateurs, as trends in organic farming and lifestyle choices continue to expand.

    Jobs in Organizational Management & Leadership: Chief Experience Officers, Talent Aggregators, Global Sourcing Managers and Financial Technologists are just a few of the new positions we will see in corporations as early as 2020 and maybe sooner.

    For more information on employment trends, visit the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (www.bls.gov) and the World Future Society (http://www.wfs.org/).

  • 02 Apr 2011 6:49 PM | Anonymous

    By Janet Civitelli

    If you are an entrepreneur starting a company and you will be in a position to set workplace polices for your new organization, or you are an executive in an established organization and you have sufficient influence to shape human resource policies, I encourage you to create an organizational culture characterized by workplace flexibility, meaning that workers can decide when and where they work, to the extent that doing so is possible while still meeting business objectives. The most flexible workplaces focus on employee results rather than time spent in an office. Below are 10 reasons why I'm a strong proponent of workplace flexibility.

    Globalization. In an increasingly global and virtual world, location is increasingly irrelevant. Says Martha Johnson of the General Services Administration, "Work is what you do, not where you are.”

    Shift from Industrial Age to Information Age. If we all worked for Henry Ford manufacturing automobiles, it might make sense to track time spent on an assembly line. Since more and more employees are knowledge workers in the Information Age, preoccupation with face time makes no sense. "Vacation limits and face time requirements are a relic of the industrial age, says Netflix Chief Executive Reed Hastings (http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/07092/773993-28.stm#ixzz1IQ1KOez8).

    Productivity. In a National Science Foundation survey, the majority of managers who directly supervise teleworkers find those employees' productivity increases or remains the same while teleworking. Results oriented work environment (ROWE) teams report an average increase of 35% in productivity.

    Influence of the Millennial Generation. Surveys indicate that members of the millennial generation seek a position and company that can offer "…a flexible work schedule, personal benefits and a sense of community within their team."

    Reduced Work/Life Conflict. A study of IBM employees showed that employees can clock 57 hours per week before experiencing work/life conflict if their hours are flexible. If their hours are not flexible, they experience stress at 38 hours per week. That's a difference of 19 hours.

    Retention of High Performing Employees. The #1 reason that employees used to leave jobs was dissatisfaction with their manager. The #1 reason now is lack of a flexible work schedule - turnover is very expensive, and many of your best employees are the ones most likely to leave if they can't get the work flexibility they need. ROWE teams also experience up to a 90% decrease in voluntary turnover rates.

    Competitiveness. The number of organizations offering telework as an option is increasing every year. Do you really want to be left behind?

    Employee Health. According to Gallup (http://www.gallup.com/poll/142142/Wellbeing-Lower-Among-Workers-Long-Commutes.aspx), long commutes cause a variety of adverse physical and emotional problems for workers. These problems include neck or back pain, high cholesterol, obesity, fatigue, and worry. Also, commuting to work causes exposure to unhealthy air pollutants. Scott Fruin, Assistant Professor of Environmental Health, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, says: “If you have otherwise healthy habits and don’t smoke, driving to work is probably the most unhealthy part of your day." 

    Telecommuting is Green. An estimated 1.35 billion gallons of gasoline could be conserved annually if every U.S. worker with the ability to telecommute did so 1.6 days per week, according to a report released by the American Electronics Association (http://articles.sfgate.com/2008-04-22/business/17146154_1_carbon-dioxide-telecommuting-advantage-telework).

    Trust is a Smart Business Strategy. Organizations that offer flexible work schedules are characterized by trust of employees. Organizations that are rigid about work schedules are mistrustful of employees. Author Stephen Covey says that when trust goes down at a company, speed goes down and cost goes up. "High trust organizations outperform low trust organizations by 280%," according to Covey. Companies on the Forbes "100 Best Companies to Work For," according to Covey, "outperform the market by 416%."

    Convinced yet? I hope that you are, because flexible workplaces are the future.

  • 16 Jun 2010 4:36 PM | Anonymous

    By Sharon Wiatt Jones

    Interveners for the Deaf and Blind. “The most important day I remember in all my life is the one on which my teacher, Anne Mansfield Sullivan, came to me” (Helen Keller). Helen Keller lost her sight at the age of 19 months after contracting a serious illness. Uncontrollable by the age of six, her parents sought alternatives to placing her in an institution. Alexander Graham Bell considered teaching deaf children to be his “true vocation” and was instrumental in identifying Anne Sullivan as Helen’s teacher. (Experimentation with hearing devices was influenced by the inventor’s deaf mother and wife.)  Sullivan taught Helen Keller an alphabet sign language by finger spelling into her palm, a method that was developed by medieval monks.

    Approximately 1.2 million Americans have combined hearing and vision losses, according to researchers at Mississippi State University. These scholars found that intensive and early intervention, from infancy until the age of three, is critical for the deaf-blind to achieve integration into society. Those with loss and/or serious impairment to hearing and vision are often medically fragile and need help from professionals with highly specialized skills.  The number of visually impaired is expected to double by 2030 due to aging of the baby boomer generation.

    Support Service Providers (SSPs) facilitate access of the deafblind to their environment, whether moving from place to place or communicating basic needs. Many SSPs are family members or volunteers. Interveners arrange educational and environmental accommodations for the deafblind.  Training for interveners varies from certification to master’s degree programs.  Other professionals who work with the dual sensory disabled are deafblind special education instructors/case managers, SSP coordinators, braille transcribers, deafblind advocacy specialists, access technology specialists or consultants, rehabilitation teachers, orientation and mobility specialists, and low-vision therapists. Opportunities in this field are growing faster than the supply of qualified applicants. In addition to canes and service dogs, assistive technology for the blind includes scanners, and software (GPS, PDAs, computer games, notetakers, and Braille embossers).

    Parent Educator. The role of parent educator has expanded since its emergence in the 1960s and 1970s. Originally targeted as early intervention for children at-risk due to poverty, disabilities, or teenage pregnancy, this training is now mandated for parents by divorce courts in more than 35 states.  Some states require filing of a formal parenting plan for joint custody: an agreement to visitation rights, residential schedule (including holidays, special occasions, summers), religious training, decision-making, childcare, relocation, and access to relatives. Some form of educational support services are available in many locations for parents going through various transitions (separation and divorce, remarriage, adoption, foster parenting, military deployment, new immigrants and refugees, pregnant teenagers). 

    Parents in families undergoing trauma, such as domestic violence may receive special programming. The Neighborhood House in St. Paul, Minnesota, serves refugees, immigrants, and low-income parents from more than 50 ethnic groups with teen parent educators and family workers (for support and education).  Boys Town trains family teaching couples, residential consultant, and in-home family consultants.  Bellevue Women’s Care Center, in the Schenectady, New York area, offers a class titled, “Before Your Baby Basics,” with success in reducing premature births.  Other goals of the program include reducing incidents of child abuse, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, and shaken baby syndrome.

  • 11 May 2010 5:07 PM | Anonymous

    By Sharon Wiatt Jones

    Psychology. Infant mental health is an emerging area in psychology, usually applying to children from birth to age 3 or age 5.  Prenatal and perinatal psychologists can identify autism and depression in infants who are as young as four months. Problems with language acquisition and social interaction may be detected by the age of two. Early intervention can make a major impact on school readiness, adolescent adjustment, and even adult mental health. Risk factors for young children include premature birth and low birth weight, fetal alcohol syndrome, abuse or neglect, foster care, and maternal depression. More than three out of four childhood abuse or neglect fatalities are infants or toddlers.

    A new specialty in industrial/organizational psychology is occupational health. This interdisciplinary field combines the study of psychology, public health, occupational health, human factors, organizational behavior, industrial engineering, and economics, among others.  The goal of occupational health psychologists is to improve the health and safety of employees. Workplace health is broad enough to include prevention of stress, illness, injury, disease, sexual harassment, and violence. It also encompasses employee assistance and work-family programs.

    Education. The child life specialist has expertise in helping children cope with stress or trauma, such as hospitalization or chronic illness. Other situations with potential for long-lasting effects on children include witnessing violence, suffering abuse, surviving natural disasters, and grieving the death of a loved one. As a member of the interdisciplinary treatment team at most children’s hospitals, the child life specialist works with medical staff, teachers, parents, and social workers. Training for this career includes courses in child development, education, and psychology. In addition to health care settings, child life professionals work in doctors’ and dentists’ offices, hospices, funeral homes, camps, schools, and the court system.

    Social Work. Gerontological counselors are in a fast-growing specialty, dealing with subjects from pre-retirement to end-of-life. With the aging of the Baby Boom generation, 20% of the U.S. population will be at least 65 years old by the year 2030. Senior care resource centers are staffed with eldercare advisors to help families choose the assisted living facility or nursing home that best fits their needs. Adult protective services investigators respond to complaints of eldercare neglect and abuse.

    Anthropology. Cultural resource specialists use their knowledge of history, archeology, and anthropology to ensure compliance with the National Historic Preservation Act and the National Environmental Policy Act. These specialists protect the remnants of human history, such as landmarks, shipwrecks, gold rush towns, and sacred Indian lands.  

    Boones’ Wilderness Road is an example of a major restoration by the National Park Service and Federal Highway Administration. American Indians forged a rugged trail through the Appalachian Mountains and named it the Great Warrior’s Path. Daniel Boone was hired in 1775 by the Transylvania Company, with the help of more than 30 woodsmen, to mark and widen a trail for pioneers. It was renamed Boone’s Wilderness Road and used from 1780-1810.

    Long after destruction by asphalt, roads, and tunnels, the federal government recognized the historical importance of the Wilderness Road and spent more than 20 years restoring it using an 1833 map. National park specialists evaluate objects and places for their significance according to the National Register of Historic Places. State and federal government agencies employ most cultural resource specialists; others work for environmental and natural resources management firms.

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